According to my research (that'd be Wikipedia), the literal translation of ushanka is "ear hat" due to the ear flaps that can be (and are in this photo) tied to the crown. It is also called a "shapka-ushanka" or "trooper hat."
Here's an excerpt from the entry: "... is a Russian fur cap with ear flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, or tied at the chin to protect the ears, jaw and lower chin from the cold. The thick dense fur also offers some protection against blunt impacts to the head. While no match for a helmet, it offers protection far superior to that of a typical beanie cap should the wearer fall and hit his or her head against ice or packed snow.
The word ushanka derives from ushi (у́ши), "ears" in Russian."